Overview[ edit ] Through a progressive sequence of regimes the British imposed Crown Colony government on the area of West Africa which came to be known as Nigeria, a form of rule which was both autocratic and bureaucratic. After initially adopting an indirect rule approach, in the British merged the small Lagos Colony and the Southern Nigeria Protectorate into a new Colony of Southern Nigeria, and in that was combined with the Northern Nigeria Protectorate to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. The essential basis of this system was a money economy —specifically the British pound sterling —which could be demanded through taxation, paid to cooperative natives, and levied as a fine.
The emphasis on simplicity and utility also suited the Puritan ethic of the Plymouth colony, who disdained pleasure and embraced austerity. The first colonists at Jamestown, Virginia established in and Plymouth, Massachusetts established in were most concerned with meeting the basic needs necessary for survival and did not have the time or luxury to consider anything else.
Constructing a functional dwelling in relatively short time from whatever materials were available was their main objective.
These early homes were more primitive dwellings built by the settlers themselves from local natural resources using whatever skills they had. Life in the 16th and 17th Century American Colonies Photo in Public Domain In the early settlements, American Colonial houses and their interiors were necessarily bare-bones and spartan, with low ceilings, rough wood beams, plain whitewashed walls and wide plank floors.
Tools were limited and skilled craftsmen were rare so quality varied greatly. Furniture and accessories not brought from Europe were handmade, idiosyncratic, and simple in design with an emphasis on function.
Nevertheless, the basic plank construction of simple benches, tables,stools, and chests suited the no-frills frugal Puritan morality of the New England colonists. Furniture was sometimes painted with white wash or naturally pigmented milk paint to disguise the fact that it was usually made of leftover wood from a variety of trees.
Windows were small and panes, if there were any, were likely to be made of oiled paper. Windows were generally left as-is or covered with plain wood shutters or a simple piece of cotton or linen fabric that was most likely homespun and woven by the housewife. Photo above shows a colonial fireplace in Salem, Massachusetts as it was in It is Available at AllPosters.
Fireplaces were essential for cooking and heating, as well as light. They were made of brick or stone and mortar and very large.
Home-made candles provided the only other source of light as the small windows provided little natural light. Dishes for the majority of families were made from earthenware or wood, but those who could afford it would have brought china and silver with them or, once tradesmen had establlished shops, purchased finer wares.
Cast iron and pewter were also used for cookware, utensils and tableware.
Photo is Available at AllPosters. The early primitive structures evolved into brick or stone houses or wood-framed structures with clapboard siding and brick chimneys.
Almost all of these homes, whether wood or masonry, featured a single batten door and shuttered windows. More prosperous cities often afforded pun not intended access to more craftsmen, imports, and communication while homes in smaller towns and country farms remained pretty much unchanged.
Other variations arose from qualities inherent in the different woods available regionally as well as the tastes and backgrounds of the inhabitants.
Different types of construction, finishing, and style identified the city or area furniture originated from. Crafting Society Identity, As the colonies prospered and trade expanded, craftsmen established businesses to serve and prosper from the growing market for their goods.
Rather, they adapted them into their own way of life, and in the process produced a unique and totally American colonial style. British colonies along the mid-Atlantic coast turned to Tudor, Jacobean and Elizabethan styles as the inspiration for what became known as the William and Mary style of the early s.
French colonies to the north and Spanish colonies to the south adapted the styles they were accustomed to. With the increasing financial wealth of the colonists, design -- including architecture, furniture, and decor -- began to catch up to European standards and styles.
Homespun fabrics were supplemented with imported calicoes and prints from India and, for the very prosperous, English damasksbrocadesand needlepoint.
Floor coverings were no longer limited to braided, handwoven or hooked rugs. The wealthy could import fine Oriental rugs as well. However, since computer monitors do not accurately and consistently depict color, the photo should be considered an approximation.
Whitewash, a solution of lime and water, was the most readily available and frequently used. Optical green was made by mixing yellow ocher and charcoal black with calcite and animal glue as a binder.
Sometimes, instead of paint, a tinted layer of thin plaster was applied to walls.Rhodes, Beit and Jameson counted on the secret backing in London of the new Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain (father of future Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain). Scots to Colonial North Carolina Before Society and Culture in Colonial Cape Fear Valley.
If one wants to trace Scottish folk song melodies from Scotland into Colonial North America, it seems logical to locate the largest concentrations of immigrant Scottish populations and to attempt to understand their culture, the cultures in which they found themselves, how they interacted with those.
TIMELINE: Early Colonial Era to , Colonization/Colonial Timeline, and Colonial Dateline - For more, check out the TIMELINE section above. Map of the 13 Colonies and Colonial America, .pdf file) - For more maps, check out the MAP section above.
What Life was Like in Colonial Times, Colonial Life Trivia, How the early Colonists Lived, Foods Eaten by the Early Colonists, Colonial Occupations and Colonial Education Facts. Established as a hill station by the French in , Sapa today is the tourism centre of the northwest.
Agritourism & Garden Center in Blue Springs; Colonial Gardens is your one shop garden stop for flowers, plants, produce and more.