Introduction Carol, 39 years old, is a Company Director and is the mother of two teenage daughters.
In absence of an interpretable spirometry within the Rotterdam Study, cases were defined as having COPD diagnosed by a physician on the basis of clinical presentation and obstructive lung function measured by the general practitioner or respiratory physician.
Incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of incident cases by the total number of person years of subjects at risk. In this cohort of 14, participants, subjects with COPD were identified of whom as prevalent ones and cases as incident ones. The IR was higher in males and in smokers.
The proportion of female COPD participants without a history of smoking was The proportion of never-smokers among female COPD cases is substantial. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is typically progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and lung tissue to harmful particles or Copd case study powerpoint presentation [ 2 ].
The chronic airflow limitation in COPD is caused by the combination of parenchymal destruction emphysema and small airways disease obstructive bronchiolitisof which the relative presence varies from person to person [ 2 ]. The disease burden and its financial impact is predicted to increase, mainly due to population aging [ 4 — 6 ].
Several studies reported on the prevalence of COPD. More evidence is rising to suggest that other risk factors such as air pollution, respiratory infections, poor nutritional status, chronic asthma, impaired lung growth, poor socio-economic status and genetic factors are also important for disease development [ 10 — 12 ].
These facts emphasize the need for action in order to reduce the impact of those risk factors on disease development.
To this end, investigating the incidence of COPD is important, since it might shed light on new trends in the development and course of the disease, which in turn can lead to new insights and guidance for prevention and treatment.
Materials and methods The present study was embedded within the Rotterdam Study, an ongoing prospective population-based cohort study that investigates the occurrence of chronic diseases and risk factors in elderly. The objective and methods of this cohort have been published previously [ 1314 ].
Participants were initially interviewed at home for information on their health status. This was followed by an extensive set of examinations performed at a specially built research facility in the study district. Trained research assistants collected information from medical records of the general practitioners GPsnursing homes and hospitals.
The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam. All participants gave their written informed consent and permission to retrieve information from treating physicians. Reversibility tests were not performed. Within the Rotterdam study, pre-bronchodilator spirometry was performed in participants.
In absence of an interpretable study-acquired spirometry, the medical records including letters from specialists and the electronic GP files were reviewed of all patients who regularly used medication for obstructive lung disease Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification codes: Drug use was exclusively used for potential case finding; each such potential case was subsequently validated through careful evaluation of all medical records, hospitalizations and specialist letters and only included if a clear and well-founded diagnosis of COPD was retained.
Cases were then defined as having physician diagnosed COPD based on clinical presentation and obstructive lung function measured by the GP or respiratory physician. The incident date was defined as the date of the first obstructive lung function examination, the date of COPD diagnosis in the medical records or the date of first prescription of the COPD medication in those with established COPDwhichever came first.
Prevalent cases were defined as having COPD at inclusion. Incident cases were defined as participants who acquired COPD during follow-up. For incident COPD cases, follow-up time was defined as the time period between the start of the study and the diagnosis of COPD, lost to follow up, death, or the last visit to the study centre December, For the statistical analyses, patients without informed consent for follow-up were excluded.
Median follow up time was estimated using the reverse Kaplan—Meier method also called Kaplan—Meier estimate of potential follow-up method.
Incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of incident cases by the total number of person years of subjects at risk and are presented per person years.
Incidence rates were stratified for sex, age, and self-reported smoking behaviour at baseline. To study age-specific incidence rates, follow-up time was divided by five-year age intervals as described before [ 18 ].
Subjects contributed to the subsequent age intervals until they developed COPD, were lost to follow up, died, or reached the end of study December, Smoking behaviour was categorised as current, former and never.
Results In this cohort of 14, participants with informed consent for follow-up, a total of individuals The median follow-up time was Guidelines for Case Presentations Discussion The flow of discussion at a case presentation is to be directed by the presenter.
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At the end of the discussion, the. Doctors help recognize, prevent, and treat allergies: Dr. Clay on case study for asthma patient: Every EP should keep track of their own procedures including complication rates. Morbidity and mortality rates should be shared with patients as part of informed consent.
The Safety and Efficacy of Hyperventilation During EEG a National Service Evaluation Review of the safety survey METHODOLOGY Methodology 63 forms were sent out 56 completed & returned from all areas of the country from Plymouth to Inverness (response rate of 89%) Map Plot RESULTS Do you use published guidelines for safety of hyperventilation?
Pulmonary Case Studies Arcot J Chandrasekhar M.D. Study of Diseases: Diagnostic challenge: Pulmonary Embolism (Medical student) Tuberculosis (Medical student) The same case is presented in three separate lessons.
Start with diagnosis first. Diagnosis;. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. These case studies may be used in a number of ways, such as: • Individual study followed by in class testing.
• Group study followed by classroom presentation.