Z Deductive and Inductive Arguments When assessing the quality of an argumentwe ask how well its premises support its conclusion. More specifically, we ask whether the argument is either deductively valid or inductively strong. An argument in which the premises do succeed in guaranteeing the conclusion is called a deductively valid argument. If a valid argument has true premises, then the argument is said also to be sound.
Bibliography Glossary of Research Terms This glossary is intended to assist you in understanding commonly used terms and concepts when reading, interpreting, and evaluating scholarly research in the social sciences. Also included are general words and phrases defined within the context of how they apply to research in the social and behavioral sciences.
Acculturation -- refers to the process of adapting to another culture, particularly in reference to blending in with the majority population [e.
However, acculturation also implies that both cultures add something to one another, but still remain distinct groups unto themselves. Accuracy -- a term used in survey research to refer to the match between the target population and the sample.
Affective Measures -- procedures or devices used to obtain quantified descriptions of an individual's feelings, emotional states, or dispositions.
Aggregate -- a total created from smaller units. For instance, the population of a county is an aggregate of the populations of the cities, rural areas, etc.
As a verb, it refers to total data from smaller units into a large unit. Anonymity -- a research condition in which no one, including the researcher, knows the identities of research participants.
Baseline -- a control measurement carried out before an experimental treatment. Behaviorism -- school of psychological thought concerned with the observable, tangible, objective facts of behavior, rather than with subjective phenomena such as thoughts, emotions, or impulses.
Contemporary behaviorism also emphasizes the study of mental states such as feelings and fantasies to the extent that they can be directly observed and measured.
Beliefs -- ideas, doctrines, tenets, etc. Benchmarking -- systematically measuring and comparing the operations and outcomes of organizations, systems, processes, etc. Bias -- a loss of balance and accuracy in the use of research methods.
It can appear in research via the sampling frame, random sampling, or non-response. It can also occur at other stages in research, such as while interviewing, in the design of questions, or in the way data are analyzed and presented. Bias means that the research findings will not be representative of, or generalizable to, a wider population.
Case Study -- the collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or small group, frequently including data derived from the subjects themselves.
Causal Hypothesis -- a statement hypothesizing that the independent variable affects the dependent variable in some way. Causal Relationship -- the relationship established that shows that an independent variable, and nothing else, causes a change in a dependent variable.
It also establishes how much of a change is shown in the dependent variable. Causality -- the relation between cause and effect. Central Tendency -- any way of describing or characterizing typical, average, or common values in some distribution.
Chi-square Analysis -- a common non-parametric statistical test which compares an expected proportion or ratio to an actual proportion or ratio. Claim -- a statement, similar to a hypothesis, which is made in response to the research question and that is affirmed with evidence based on research.
Classification -- ordering of related phenomena into categories, groups, or systems according to characteristics or attributes.
Cluster Analysis -- a method of statistical analysis where data that share a common trait are grouped together. The data is collected in a way that allows the data collector to group data according to certain characteristics.
Cohort Analysis -- group by group analytic treatment of individuals having a statistical factor in common to each group. Group members share a particular characteristic [e. Confidentiality -- a research condition in which no one except the researcher s knows the identities of the participants in a study.
It refers to the treatment of information that a participant has disclosed to the researcher in a relationship of trust and with the expectation that it will not be revealed to others in ways that violate the original consent agreement, unless permission is granted by the participant.
Confirmability Objectivity -- the findings of the study could be confirmed by another person conducting the same study. Construct -- refers to any of the following: For example, intelligence cannot be directly observed or measured; it is a construct.
Construct Validity -- seeks an agreement between a theoretical concept and a specific measuring device, such as observation. Constructivism -- the idea that reality is socially constructed.
It is the view that reality cannot be understood outside of the way humans interact and that the idea that knowledge is constructed, not discovered.
Constructivists believe that learning is more active and self-directed than either behaviorism or cognitive theory would postulate.In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches..
Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down" approach.
The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data.
The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data. Difference between articles related to science.
Editor's Picks. Difference Between Civil War and Revolution; Difference Between Aperol and Campari. Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in data collection, online surveys, paper surveys, quantifiable research, and quantifiable data.
These are very similar terms and as such there is hardly any difference between them. Overall researchers tend to adopt one of the terms and then stick to that term throughout their work.